In type 1 diabetes gradually decaying pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin to absolute insulin deficiency. Without insulin, which moves glucose into cells, blood sugar becomes excessively high and hyperglycemia occurs.
Type 1 diabetes usually precedes phase without symptoms, known as insulitis, when the T cells of the immune system begin to infiltrate and destroy the beta cells of the pancreas. It is not known what drives this phenomenon, but there is evidence of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Disease progression of inzulinitisa to the full-fledged diabetes may take even more than a few years.
Who gets type 1 diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is less common than type 2 and is only 7 to 10% of all cases of diabetes. Type 1 can occur at any age, but usually occurs between infancy and 30 years of age, usually during childhood and adolescence. Diseases are subject to the same boys and girls.
What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
When insulin production is reduced to a minimum, type 1 diabetes mellitus usually occurs suddenly and progresses rapidly. Signs warning of the emergence of the disease are: frequent urination, re-wetting the bed after the child has a habit, unusual thirst, need for sweets and cold drinks, extreme hunger, sudden weight loss, fatigue, itching of the genital region, extreme tiredness, blurred vision or other changes in vision and irritability. Children who suffer from Type 1 diabetes are often restless, apathetic, and may have difficulty in school.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include nausea and vomiting, and, in children, abdominal pain. Breathing can be deep and rapidly frequent. Heart rate is usually rapid. If the condition persists, it may cause coma and eventually death. Emergency comprising administering insulin to correct glucose and ketone and quickly replenishing fluids and electrolytes.
Hypoglycemia. Intensive insulin therapy or medication that stimulates the secretion of insulin increases the risk of hypoglycemia that occurs when blood glucose levels drop below normal levels. Hypoglycemia may occur due to insufficient food intake, exercise or alcohol. Mild symptoms include sweating, trembling, hunger and rapid heartbeat. Very low concentrations of glucose in the blood can accelerate neurological symptoms – confusion, weakness, disorientation, belligerence, and in rare and worst cases coma and death. Family and friends need to know the symptoms. The patient should be given three to five hard candy, two or three packets of sugar or half a cup (more than 1 dl) of fruit juice. Family members and friends can learn how to give an injection of glucagon, a hormone that unlike insulin increases the concentration of glucose in the blood. Hypoglycemia often occurs during sleep, especially in children, even those who are not in the intensive insulin therapy. Snacks at the time of going to sleep can be effective.
Complications of diabetes!
The principal complications of diabetes occur due to a disturbance in the blood vessels due to nerve damage (neuropathy). Damage to large blood vessels endanger the heart, especially in patients with high blood pressure and heart disease and can cause problems in the circulation of the legs. Changes in the small blood vessels are particularly dangerous for the eyes and kidneys.
What are the general guidelines for the treatment of type 1 diabetes?
Insulin is necessary for the survival and the main stronghold in the treatment of diabetes type 1. It is extremely important to plan the diet to compensate for insulin and a source of healthy food. The primary complications of intensified insulin therapy is greater susceptibility to hypoglycemia.
The way of life in type 1 diabetes
To achieve the highest possible quality of life with insulin therapy is necessary to change the habits. These include dietary measures, physical exercise, weight control and foot care for keeping out the chronic complications of diabetes. Of course, all need to work together, and as recommended by diabetologists.
Control of diabetes type 1
For patients with insulin problem and hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Therefore, it is important to closely monitor blood glucose, measured by hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) or hemoglobin to determine the average concentration of glucose in the blood.
Testing of urine is useful in detecting the presence of a ketone and it is always necessary to carry out during the illness or stress, when it is likely to get out of control.
For those on intensive insulin therapy, experts recommend an eye examination at baseline at every three months to a year.
How to prevent the complications of type 1 diabetes?
For patients who control high blood pressure, regular doctor visits is recommended and strictly adhere to insulin therapy, the percentage of complications may be one third lower than in patients who do not take these measures. At Intensive treatment weight gain is very common, which is why patients are at risk of high blood pressure and unhealthy cholesterol levels. All, especially patients with diabetes should live healthy.